Association between smoking status and inpatient outcomes of acute cholangitis in the United States: a propensity matched analysis

Authors Waqas Rasheed, Anass Dweik, Gnanashree Dharmarpandi, Muhammad Anees, Ola Aljobory, Yasir Al-Hilli.


Background Acute cholangitis (AC) is an infection of the biliary tract superimposed on stasis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of smoking on inpatient outcomes of AC.

Methods We identified primary AC hospitalizations using the National Inpatient Sample database (2017-2020). Using a 1:1 matching method, we created a matched comparison cohort of AC patients who were non-smokers, based on demographics, hospital characteristics and comorbidities.

Results We matched 3960 smoker patients with 3960 non-smoker patients within the AC population. Non-smokers were older than smokers (70 vs. 59 years, P<0.001). Smokers had a stronger association with bile duct calculi (74.37% vs. 69.29%, P<0.001) and other bile duct disorders (clots, parasites, extrinsic compression and other rare disorders) (6.82% vs. 5.05%, P=0.011). No significant difference in inpatient mortality, median length of stay (LOS), or median inpatient cost (MIC) was found between the matched cohorts (P>0.05). However,
smoking was associated with higher odds of complications, including sepsis without shock (0.88% vs. 0.51%, P=0.042), sepsis with shock (1.26% vs. 0.51%, P<0.001), biliary pancreatitis (6.57% vs. 4.42%, P<0.001) and myocardial infarction (6.19% vs. 3.54%, P<0.001), as well as a greater need for inpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (72.85% vs. 63.76%, P<0.001) and early ERCP (50.76% vs. 42.32%, P<0.001) compared to non-smokers.

Conclusions This study found no difference in mortality, LOS, or MIC in acute cholangitis-related hospitalizations associated with smoking. However, smoking was associated with a higher risk of complications and a greater need for ERCP and early ERCP.

Keywords Acute cholangitis, smoking, national inpatient sample, inpatient outcomes

Ann Gastroenterol 2023; 36 (5): 573-579

Original Articles