Role of thrombophilia in splanchnic venous thrombosis in acute pancreatitis
Background Splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT) is a common vascular complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). We conducted this study to prospectively investigate the frequency, risk factors, and extent of SVT in patients with AP and to evaluate the role of thrombophilia in its causation.
Methods Patients with AP presenting between January 2015 and June 2016 were prospectively evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for the presence of SVT. These patients underwent a detailed analysis of coagulation parameters.
Results We evaluated 96 patients with AP (73 male, mean age 31.85±13.34 years), of whom 26 (27.1%) had SVT. Splenic vein, portal vein, and superior mesenteric vein involvement were seen in 22 (84.6%), 11 (42.3%), and 4 (15.3%) patients, respectively. Necrotizing pancreatitis, CT severity index (CTSI) >6 and modified CTSI >6 were significantly more frequent in patients with SVT than in those without (96.2% vs. 78.6%, 76.9% vs. 47.1%, and 92.3% vs. 67.1%, respectively). Proteins C and S, and antithrombin III deficiency were found in 23.8%, 33.3% and 31.0% of patients, respectively. Anti-β2-glycoprotein I and lupus anticoagulant were positive in 4.8% and 11.9% of patients, respectively. Factor V Leiden mutation analysis was positive in 6.1% of patients. Coagulation abnormality did not differ significantly between the patients with and without SVT.
Conclusions SVT is more common in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, suggesting that local inflammation plays a major role in its causation. Thrombophilia is seen in one third of patients with AP but does not seem to increase the risk of SVT.
Keywords Acute pancreatitis, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, protein C, protein S, pancreatic necrosis, Doppler, inflammation
Ann Gastroenterol 2018; 31 (3): 371-378