Metabolic and cardiovascular complications in the liver transplant recipient
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease that affects 20-30% of the adult population in the western world, correlating with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Survival following liver transplantation (LT) has been steadily improving over the last 2 decades, with graft loss becoming a relatively rare cause of morbidity and mortality post LT. The improvement in short-term survival following LT has resulted in an increased incidence of metabolic and cardiovascular complications, which affect the mid- and long term survival. Patients following LT typically gain weight and might develop diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia as a consequence of their immunosuppressive therapy and their lifestyle. In this paper we review the prevalence of metabolic and cardiovascular complications following LT, their impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality and their optimal management.
Keywords Liver transplantation, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, epidemiology, risk factors, morbidity, mortality, NAFLD, NASH, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus
Ann Gastroenterol 2015; 28 (2): 182-192